Simmons, Cameron

Profile Picture
Email Address
Birth Date
Research Projects
Organizational Units
Job Title
Director of the Institute of Vector-Borne Disease
Last Name
First Name

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 180
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Comparison of the abilities of different attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strains to elicit humoral immune responses against a heterologous antigen
    (1998-02-01) Simmons, Cameron
    We compared the abilities of different Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) strains harboring mutations in the genes aroA, aroAD, purA, ompR, htrA, and cya crp to present the heterologous antigen, C fragment of tetanus toxin, to the mouse immune system. Plasmid pTETtac4, encoding C fragment, was transferred into the various S. typhimurium mutants, and the levels of antigen expression were found to be equivalent. After primary oral immunization of BALB/c mice, all attenuated strains were capable of penetrating the gut epithelium and colonizing the Peyer's patches and spleens of mice. Of all strains compared, the delta purA mutant colonized and persisted in the Peyer's patches at the lowest level, whereas the delta htrA mutant colonized and persisted in the spleen at the lowest level. The level of specific antibody elicited by the different strains against either S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide or tetanus toxoid was strain dependent and did not directly correlate to the mutants' ability to colonize the spleen. The level of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a antibody specific for tetanus toxoid was determined in mice immunized with four S. typhimurium mutants. The level of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a was significantly lower in animals immunized with S. typhimurium delta purA. Antigen-specific T-cell proliferation assays indicated a degree of variability in the capacity of some strains to elicit T cells to the heterologous antigen. Cytokine profiles (gamma interferon and interleukin-5) revealed that the four S. typhimurium mutants tested induced a Th1-type immune response. Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of tetanus toxin 96 days after oral immunization. With the exception of the S. typhimurium delta purA mutant, all strains elicited a protective immune response. These data indicate that the level of total Ig specific for the carried antigen, C fragment, does not correlate with the relative invasiveness of the vector, but it is determined by the carrier mutation and the background of the S. typhimurium strain.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of human monoclonal antibodies against H5N1 influenza
    (2007-05-01) Simmons, Cameron
    BACKGROUND: New prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are needed. We generated neutralizing anti-H5N1 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and tested their efficacy for prophylaxis and therapy in a murine model of infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using Epstein-Barr virus we immortalized memory B cells from Vietnamese adults who had recovered from infections with HPAI H5N1 viruses. Supernatants from B cell lines were screened in a virus neutralization assay. B cell lines secreting neutralizing antibodies were cloned and the mAbs purified. The cross-reactivity of these antibodies for different strains of H5N1 was tested in vitro by neutralization assays, and their prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in vivo was tested in mice. In vitro, mAbs FLA3.14 and FLD20.19 neutralized both Clade I and Clade II H5N1 viruses, whilst FLA5.10 and FLD21.140 neutralized Clade I viruses only. In vivo, FLA3.14 and FLA5.10 conferred protection from lethality in mice challenged with A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) in a dose-dependent manner. mAb prophylaxis provided a statistically significant reduction in pulmonary virus titer, reduced associated inflammation in the lungs, and restricted extrapulmonary dissemination of the virus. Therapeutic doses of FLA3.14, FLA5.10, FLD20.19, and FLD21.140 provided robust protection from lethality at least up to 72 h postinfection with A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1). mAbs FLA3.14, FLD21.140 and FLD20.19, but not FLA5.10, were also therapeutically active in vivo against the Clade II virus A/Indonesia/5/2005 (H5N1). CONCLUSIONS: These studies provide proof of concept that fully human mAbs with neutralizing activity can be rapidly generated from the peripheral blood of convalescent patients and that these mAbs are effective for the prevention and treatment of H5N1 infection in a mouse model. A panel of neutralizing, cross-reactive mAbs might be useful for prophylaxis or adjunctive treatment of human cases of H5N1 influenza.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Dogma in Classifying Dengue Disease
    (2013-08-01) Simmons, Cameron
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia
    (2006-10-01) Simmons, Cameron
    Avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses cause severe disease in humans, but the basis for their virulence remains unclear. In vitro and animal studies indicate that high and disseminated viral replication is important for disease pathogenesis. Laboratory experiments suggest that virus-induced cytokine dysregulation may contribute to disease severity. To assess the relevance of these findings for human disease, we performed virological and immunological studies in 18 individuals with H5N1 and 8 individuals infected with human influenza virus subtypes. Influenza H5N1 infection in humans is characterized by high pharyngeal virus loads and frequent detection of viral RNA in rectum and blood. Viral RNA in blood was present only in fatal H5N1 cases and was associated with higher pharyngeal viral loads. We observed low peripheral blood T-lymphocyte counts and high chemokine and cytokine levels in H5N1-infected individuals, particularly in those who died, and these correlated with pharyngeal viral loads. Genetic characterization of H5N1 viruses revealed mutations in the viral polymerase complex associated with mammalian adaptation and virulence. Our observations indicate that high viral load, and the resulting intense inflammatory responses, are central to influenza H5N1 pathogenesis. The focus of clinical management should be on preventing this intense cytokine response, by early diagnosis and effective antiviral treatment.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Mucosal delivery of a respiratory syncytial virus CTL peptide with enterotoxin-based adjuvants elicits protective, immunopathogenic, and immunoregulatory antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses
    (2001-01-15) Simmons, Cameron
    test In an effort to develop a safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), we used Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT), and LTK63 (an LT mutant devoid of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity) to elicit murine CD8(+) CTL responses to an intranasally codelivered CTL peptide from the second matrix protein (M2) of RSV. M2(82-90)-specific CD8(+) T cells were detected by IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot and (51)Cr release assay in local and systemic lymph nodes, and their induction was dependent on the use of a mucosal adjuvant. CTL elicited by peptide immunization afforded protection against RSV challenge, but also enhanced weight loss. CTL-mediated viral clearance was not dependent on IFN-gamma since depletion using specific mAb during RSV challenge did not affect cellular recruitment or viral clearance. Depletion of IFN-gamma did, however, reduce the concentration of TNF detected in lung homogenates of challenged mice and largely prevented the weight loss associated with CTL-mediated viral clearance. Mice primed with the attachment glycoprotein (G) develop lung eosinophilia after intranasal RSV challenge. Mucosal peptide vaccination reduced pulmonary eosinophilia in mice subsequently immunized with G and challenged with RSV. These studies emphasize that protective and immunoregulatory CD8(+) CTL responses can be mucosally elicited using enterotoxin-based mucosal adjuvants but that resistance against viral infection may be accompanied by enhanced disease.
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Clinical evaluation of dengue and identification of risk factors for severe disease: protocol for a multicentre study in 8 countries (version 1)
    (2016-03-11) Simmons, Cameron
    BACKGROUND: The burden of dengue continues to increase globally, with an estimated 100 million clinically apparent infections occurring each year. Although most dengue infections are asymptomatic, patients can present with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms ranging from mild febrile illness through to severe manifestations of bleeding, organ impairment, and hypovolaemic shock due to a systemic vascular leak syndrome. Clinical diagnosis of dengue and identification of which patients are likely to develop severe disease remain challenging. This study aims to improve diagnosis and clinical management through approaches designed a) to differentiate between dengue and other common febrile illness within 72 h of fever onset, and b) among patients with dengue to identify markers that are predictive of the likelihood of evolving to a more severe disease course. METHOD/DESIGN: This is a prospective multi-centre observational study aiming to enrol 7-8000 participants aged ≤ 5 years presenting with a febrile illness consistent with dengue to outpatient health facilities in 8 countries across Asia and Latin America. Patients presenting within 72 h of fever onset who do not exhibit signs of severe disease are eligible for the study. A broad range of clinical and laboratory parameters are assessed daily for up to 6 days during the acute illness, and also at a follow up visit 1 week later. DISCUSSION: Data from this large cohort of patients, enrolled early with undifferentiated fever, will be used to develop a practical diagnostic algorithm and a robust clinical case definition for dengue. Additionally, among patients with confirmed dengue we aim to identify simple clinical and laboratory parameters associated with progression to a more severe disease course. We will also investigate early virological and serological correlates of severe disease, and examine genetic associations in this large heterogeneous cohort. In addition the results will be used to assess the new World Health Organization classification scheme for dengue in practice, and to update the guidelines for "Integrated Management of Childhood Illness" used in dengue-endemic countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01550016. Registration Date: March 7, 2012.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Dengue Virus Infections and Maternal Antibody Decay in a Prospective Birth Cohort Study of Vietnamese Infants
    (2009-12-15) Simmons, Cameron
    Dengue hemorrhagic fever can occur in primary dengue virus (DENV) infection of infants. The decay of maternally derived DENV immunoglobulin (Ig) G and the incidence of DENV infection were determined in a prospectively studied cohort of 1244 Vietnamese infants. Higher concentrations of total IgG and DENV-reactive IgG were found in cord plasma relative to maternal plasma. Maternally derived DENV-neutralizing and E protein-reactive IgG titers declined to below measurable levels in >90% of infants by 6 months of age. In contrast, IgG reactive with whole DENV virions persisted until 12 months of age in 20% of infants. Serological surveillance identified 10 infants with asymptomatic DENV infection for an incidence of 1.7 cases per 100 person-years. DENV-neutralizing antibodies remained measurable for > or = 1 year after infection. These results suggest that whereas DENV infection in infants is frequently subclinical, there is a window between 4 and 12 months of age where virion-binding but nonneutralizing IgG could facilitate antibody-dependent enhancement.
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    A Prognostic Model for Development of Profound Shock among Children Presenting with Dengue Shock Syndrome
    (2015-05-06) Simmons, Cameron
    PURPOSE: To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS). METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≤2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock), or ≤1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock), and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches. RESULTS: The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18%) progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36%) had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation) and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart. CONCLUSIONS: Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.