Epidemiology and Virology of Acute Respiratory Infections During the First Year of Life A Birth Cohort Study in Vietnam

dc.contributor.authorSimmons, Cameron
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Understanding viral etiology and age-specific incidence of acute respiratory infections in infants can help identify risk groups and inform vaccine delivery, but community-based data is lacking from tropical settings. METHODS: One thousand four hundred and seventy-eight infants in urban Ho Chi Minh City and 981 infants in a semi-rural district in southern Vietnam were enrolled at birth and followed to 1 year of age. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) episodes were identified through clinic-based illness surveillance, hospital admissions and self-reports. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from infants with respiratory symptoms and tested for 14 respiratory pathogens using multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Estimated incidence of ARI was 542 and 2691 per 1000 infant-years, and hospitalization rates for ARI were 81 and 138 per 1000 infant-years, in urban and semi-rural cohorts, respectively, from clinic- and hospital-based surveillance. However self-reported ARI episodes were just 1.5-fold higher in the semi-rural versus urban cohort, indicating that part of the urban-rural difference was explained by under-ascertainment in the urban cohort. Incidence was higher in infants ≤6 months of age than <6 months, but this was pathogen-specific. One or more viruses were detected in 53% (urban) and 64% (semi-rural) of samples from outpatients with ARI and in 78% and 66% of samples from hospitalized ARI patients, respectively. The most frequently detected viruses were rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus A and bocavirus. ARI-associated hospitalizations were associated with longer stays and more frequent ICU admission than other infections. CONCLUSIONS: ARI is a significant cause of morbidity in Vietnamese infants and influenza virus A is an under-appreciated cause of vaccine-preventable disease and hospitalizations in this tropical setting. Public health strategies to reduce infant ARI incidence and hospitalization rates are needed.
dc.titleEpidemiology and Virology of Acute Respiratory Infections During the First Year of Life A Birth Cohort Study in Vietnamen_US
dc.typeJournal Article