Two-dimensional defect modes in optically induced photonic lattices

Wang, Jiandong
Yang, Jianke
Chen, Zhigang
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In this article, localized linear defect modes due to bandgap guidance in two-dimensional photonic lattices with localized or non-localized defects are investigated theoretically. First, when the defect is localized and weak, eigenvalues of defect modes bifurcated from edges of Bloch bands are derived analytically. It is shown that in an attractive (repulsive) defect, defect modes bifurcate out from Bloch-band edges with normal (anomalous) diffraction coefficients. Furthermore, distances between defect-mode eigenvalues and Bloch-band edges are exponentially small functions of the defect strength, which is very different from the one-dimensional case where such distances are quadratically small with the defect strength. It is also found that some defect-mode branches bifurcate not from Bloch-band edges, but from quasi-edge points within Bloch bands, which is very unusual. Second, when the defect is localized but strong, defect modes are determined numerically. It is shown that both the repulsive and attractive defects can support various types of defect modes such as fundamental, dipole, quadrupole, and vortex modes. These modes reside in various bandgaps of the photonic lattice. As the defect strength increases, defect modes move from lower bandgaps to higher ones when the defect is repulsive, but remain within each bandgap when the defect is attractive, similar to the one-dimensional case. The same phenomena are observed when the defect is held fixed while the applied dc field (which controls the lattice potential) increases. Lastly, if the defect is non-localized (i.e. it persists at large distances in the lattice), it is shown that defect modes can be embedded inside the continuous spectrum, and they can bifurcate out from edges of the continuous spectrum algebraically rather than exponentially.
Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures, to appear in Phys. Rev. A
Physics - Optics