Universality in Multidimensional Symbolic Dynamics

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Hochman, Michael
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Abstract
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We show that in the category of effective $Z$ dynamical systems there is a universal system, i.e. one that factors onto every other effective system. In particular, for d $\geq 3$ there exist d-dimensional shifts of finite type which are universal for 1-dimensional subactions of SFTs. On the other hand, we show that there is no universal effective $Z^d$-system for $d>1$, and in particular SFTs cannot be universal for subactions of rank $d>1$. As a consequence, a decrease in entropy and Medvedev degree and periodic data are not sufficient for a factor map to exists between SFTs. We also discuss dynamics of cellular automata on their limit sets and show that (except for the unavoidable presence of a periodic point) they can model a large class of physical systems.
Comment: 17 pages
Keywords
Mathematics - Dynamical Systems, Mathematics - Logic, 37B15, 37B40, 37B50, 94A17, 03D45
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