Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups

Zwart, Hans
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Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space. Furthermore, we show that none of the conditions can be weakened. However, if the eigenvalues (counted with multiplicity) can be grouped into subsets of at most $K$ elements, and the distance between the groups is (uniformly) bounded away from zero, then the spectral projections associated to the groups form a Riesz family. This implies that if in every range of the spectral projection we construct an orthonormal basis, then the union of these bases is a Riesz basis in the Hilbert space.
Comment: 17 pages
Mathematics - Functional Analysis, Mathematics - Spectral Theory, 34L10, 47A60, 47C03