Matrix genetics, part 2: the degeneracy of the genetic code and the octave algebra with two quasi-real units (the genetic octave Yin-Yang-algebra)

Petoukhov, Sergey V.
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Algebraic properties of the genetic code are analyzed. The investigations of the genetic code on the basis of matrix approaches ("matrix genetics") are described. The degeneracy of the vertebrate mitochondria genetic code is reflected in the black-and-white mosaic of the (8*8)-matrix of 64 triplets, 20 amino acids and stop-signals. This mosaic genetic matrix is connected with the matrix form of presentation of the special 8-dimensional Yin-Yang-algebra and of its particular 4-dimensional case. The special algorithm, which is based on features of genetic molecules, exists to transform the mosaic genomatrix into the matrices of these algebras. Two new numeric systems are defined by these 8-dimensional and 4-dimensional algebras: genetic Yin-Yang-octaves and genetic tetrions. Their comparison with quaternions by Hamilton is presented. Elements of new "genovector calculation" and ideas of "genetic mechanics" are discussed. These algebras are considered as models of the genetic code and as its possible pre-code basis. They are related with binary oppositions of the Yin-Yang type and they give new opportunities to investigate evolution of the genetic code. The revealed fact of the relation between the genetic code and these genetic algebras is discussed in connection with the idea by Pythagoras: "All things are numbers". Simultaneously these genetic algebras can be utilized as the algebras of genetic operators in biological organisms. The described results are related with the problem of algebraization of bioinformatics. They take attention to the question: what is life from the viewpoint of algebra?
Comment: 27 pages, 24 figures; changed content; added materials and references
Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods, Mathematical Physics, Quantitative Biology - Genomics, Quantitative Biology - Other Quantitative Biology