Thermodynamic properties and bulk viscosity near phase transition in the Z(2) and O(4) models

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Li, Bao-Chun
Huang, Mei
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We investigate the thermodynamic properties including equation of state, the trace anomaly, the sound velocity and the specific heat, as well as transport properties like bulk viscosity in the Z(2) and O(4) models in the Hartree approximation of Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) formalism. We study these properties in different cases, e.g. first order phase transition, second order phase transition, crossover and the case without phase transition, and discuss the correlation between the bulk viscosity and the thermodynamic properties of the system. We find that the bulk viscosity over entropy density ratio exhibits an upward cusp at the second order phase transition, and a sharp peak at the 1st order phase transition. However, this peak becomes smooth or disappears in the case of crossover. This indicates that at RHIC, where there is no real phase transition and the system experiences a crossover, the bulk viscosity over entropy density might be small, and it will not affect too much on hadronization. We also suggest that the bulk viscosity over entropy density ratio is a better quantity than the shear viscosity over entropy density ratio to locate the critical endpoint.
Comment: 19 pages, 30 figures, 1 table
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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology
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