Dynamic Model and Phase Transitions for Liquid Helium
This article presents a phenomenological dynamic phase transition theory -- modeling and analysis -- for superfluids. As we know, although the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model has been successfully used in superconductivity, and the classical Ginzburg-Landau free energy is still poorly applicable to liquid helium in a quantitative sense. The study in this article is based on 1) a new dynamic classification scheme of phase transitions, 2) new time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau models for general equilibrium transitions, and 3) the general dynamic transition theory. The results in this article predict the existence of a unstable region H, where both solid and liquid He II states appear randomly depending on fluctuations and the existence of a switch point M on the lambda-curve, where the transitions changes types.
Condensed Matter - Statistical Mechanics