Topological Phases of Noncentrosymmetric Superconductors: Edge States, Majorana Fermions, and the Non-Abelian Statistics

Sato, Masatoshi
Fujimoto, Satoshi
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The existence of edge states and zero energy modes in vortex cores is a hallmark of topologically nontrivial phases realized in various condensed matter systems such as the fractional quantum Hall states, p+ip superconductors, and Z_2 insulators (quantum spin Hall state). We examine this scenario for two dimensional noncentrosymmetric superconductors which allow the parity-mixing of Cooper pairs. It is found that even when the s-wave pairing gap is nonzero, provided that the superconducting gap of spin-triplet pairs is larger than that of spin-singlet pairs, gapless edge states and zero energy Majorana modes in vortex cores emerge, characterizing topological order. Furthermore, it is shown that for Rashba superconductors, the quantum spin Hall effect produced by gapless edge states exists even under an applied magnetic field which breaks time-reversal symmetry provided that the field direction is perpendicular to the propagating direction of the edge modes. This result making a sharp contrast to the Z_2 insulator is due to an accidental symmetry inherent in the Rashba model. It is also demonstrated that in the case with magnetic fields, the non-Abelian statistics of vortices is possible under a particular but realistic condition.
Comment: 21 pages, 9 figures, a reference and two equations are added, and typos are fixed
Condensed Matter - Superconductivity