The Connection between Gamma-Ray Bursts and Extremely Metal-Poor Stars as Nucleosynthetic Probes of the Early Universe

Nomoto, K.
Tominaga, N.
Tanaka, M.
Maeda, K.
Umeda, H.
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The connection between the long GRBs and Type Ic Supernovae (SNe) has revealed the interesting diversity: (i) GRB-SNe, (ii) Non-GRB Hypernovae (HNe), (iii) X-Ray Flash (XRF)-SNe, and (iv) Non-SN GRBs (or dark HNe). We show that nucleosynthetic properties found in the above diversity are connected to the variation of the abundance patterns of extremely-metal-poor (EMP) stars, such as the excess of C, Co, Zn relative to Fe. We explain such a connection in a unified manner as nucleosynthesis of hyper-aspherical (jet-induced) explosions Pop III core-collapse SNe. We show that (1) the explosions with large energy deposition rate, $\dot{E}_{\rm dep}$, are observed as GRB-HNe and their yields can explain the abundances of normal EMP stars, and (2) the explosions with small $\dot{E}_{\rm dep}$ are observed as GRBs without bright SNe and can be responsible for the formation of the C-rich EMP (CEMP) and the hyper metal-poor (HMP) stars. We thus propose that GRB-HNe and the Non-SN GRBs (dark HNe) belong to a continuous series of BH-forming stellar deaths with the relativistic jets of different $\dot{E}_{\rm dep}$.
Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures. To appear in "Massive Stars as Cosmic Engines", Proceedings of IAU Symposium 250 (December 2007, Kauai), eds. F. Bresolin, P.A. Crowther, & J. Puls (Cambridge Univ. Press)