The Connection between Gamma-Ray Bursts and Extremely Metal-Poor Stars as Nucleosynthetic Probes of the Early Universe

Nomoto, K.
Tominaga, N.
Tanaka, M.
Maeda, K.
Umeda, H.
Description
The connection between the long GRBs and Type Ic Supernovae (SNe) has revealed the interesting diversity: (i) GRB-SNe, (ii) Non-GRB Hypernovae (HNe), (iii) X-Ray Flash (XRF)-SNe, and (iv) Non-SN GRBs (or dark HNe). We show that nucleosynthetic properties found in the above diversity are connected to the variation of the abundance patterns of extremely-metal-poor (EMP) stars, such as the excess of C, Co, Zn relative to Fe. We explain such a connection in a unified manner as nucleosynthesis of hyper-aspherical (jet-induced) explosions Pop III core-collapse SNe. We show that (1) the explosions with large energy deposition rate, $\dot{E}_{\rm dep}$, are observed as GRB-HNe and their yields can explain the abundances of normal EMP stars, and (2) the explosions with small $\dot{E}_{\rm dep}$ are observed as GRBs without bright SNe and can be responsible for the formation of the C-rich EMP (CEMP) and the hyper metal-poor (HMP) stars. We thus propose that GRB-HNe and the Non-SN GRBs (dark HNe) belong to a continuous series of BH-forming stellar deaths with the relativistic jets of different $\dot{E}_{\rm dep}$.
Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures. To appear in "Massive Stars as Cosmic Engines", Proceedings of IAU Symposium 250 (December 2007, Kauai), eds. F. Bresolin, P.A. Crowther, & J. Puls (Cambridge Univ. Press)
Astrophysics