Skyrmions in Orientifold and Adjoint QCD

Bolognesi, Stefano
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This is a review of recent developments regarding the Skyrmion sector of higher representation QCD. Ordinary QCD is a SU(n) gauge theory with n_f Dirac quarks in the fundamental representation. Changing the representation of quarks leads to different and interesting theories, which are not as well studied as ordinary QCD. In order to be able to have a consistent asymptotically free large n limit, we must limit ourselves to three cases: two-index representation (symmetric or anti-symmetric) and adjoint representation. Skyrmions of the low-energy effective Lagrangian shall be the main subject of this review. There are puzzling aspects, both in orientifold and adjoint QCD, regarding the identification of the Skyrmion and its quantum stability, that have not yet been understood. We shall explain these problems and the solution we proposed for them. The first part is dedicated to the two-index representation. Here the challenge is to identify the correct particle in the spectrum that has to be identified with the Skyrmion. It turns out not to be the simplest baryon (as in ordinary QCD) but a baryonic state with higher charge, precisely composed by n(n\pm 1)/2 quarks. Although not the simplest among the baryons, it is the one that minimizes the mass per unit of baryonic charge and thus is the most stable among them. The second part is devoted to the quarks in the adjoint representation. The task here assume a different perspective. We do not have a baryon charge, like in ordinary QCD. An important role is now played by a massive fermion that must be considered in the low-energy effective Lagrangian. Through this fermion, the Skyrmion acquires an anomalous fermionic number (-1)^F and, as a consequence, an odd relationship between the latter and its spin/statistic. This implies a Z_2 stability of the Skyrmion.
Comment: 38 pages; 15 figures. v2: ref added
High Energy Physics - Theory