Late transient acceleration of the universe in string theory on $S^{1}/Z_{2}$

Wu, Qiang
Santos, N. O.
Vo, Pamela
Wang, Anzhong
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Recently, in Gong {\em et al} \cite{GWW07} and Wang and Santos \cite{WS07} it was shown that the effective cosmological constant on each of the two orbifold branes can be easily lowered to its current observational value, by using the large extra dimensions in the framework of both M-Theory and string theory on $S^{1}/Z_{2}$. In this paper, we study the current acceleration of the universe, using the formulas developed in \cite{WS07}. We first construct explicitly time-dependent solution to the 10-dimensional bulk of the Neveu-Schwarz/Neveu-Schwarz sector, compactified on a 5-dimensional torus. Then, we write down the generalized Friedmann equations on each of the two dynamical branes, and fit the models to the 182 gold supernova Ia data and the BAO parameter from SDSS, using both of our MINUIT and Monte-Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) codes. With the best fitting values of the parameters involved as initial conditions, we integrate the generalized Friedmann equations numerically and find the future evolution of the universe. We find that it depends on the choice of the radion potentials $V_{4}^{(I)} (I = 1, 2)$ of the branes. In particular, when choosing them to be the Goldberger-Wise potentials, $V_{4}^{(I)} = \lambda_{4}^{(I)} (\psi^{2} - {v_{I}}^{2})^{2}$, we find that the current acceleration of the universe driven by the effective cosmological constant is only temporary. Due to the effects of the potentials, the universe will be finally in its decelerating expansion phase again. We also study the proper distance between the two branes, and find that it remains almost constant during the whole future evolution of the universe in all the models considered.
Comment: revtex4, 18 figures. Typos corrected and new References added. Version to be published in JCAP
Astrophysics, General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, High Energy Physics - Phenomenology, High Energy Physics - Theory