New Method to Reveal the Conflict Between Local Realism and Quantum Mechanics

Nagata, Koji
Ahn, Jaewook
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We formulate the expectation value of the Bell-Zukowski operator acting on qubit states of a two-particle Bell experiment. By using the equivalence between a set of N copies of a two-qubit experiment and a standard two-setting Bell experiment in an entangled 2N-particle state, we obtain an inequality, which we may call the Bell-Zukowski inequality. It determines whether the measured correlation functions of two-particle states can be modeled locally and realistically. In this Bell experiment of two particles, the conflict between local realism and quantum mechanics is discussed in conjunction with the violation of the Bell-Zukowski inequality. The main point of the result is that the Bell-Zukowski operator can be represented by the Bell-Mermin operator. The threshold visibility of two-particle interference analyzed in this scheme shows good agreement with the value to cause a violation of the Bell-Zukowski inequality.
Comment: To appear in Journal of the Korean Physical Society. We have introduced an additional assumption that the detector efficiency is perfect (i.e., 100%). We thank Professor Douglas G. Danforth for valuable comments
Quantum Physics