Squashing Models for Optical Measurements in Quantum Communication

Beaudry, Normand J.
Moroder, Tobias
Lütkenhaus, Norbert
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Measurements with photodetectors necessarily need to be described in the infinite dimensional Fock space of one or several modes. For some measurements a model has been postulated which describes the full mode measurement as a composition of a mapping (squashing) of the signal into a small dimensional Hilbert space followed by a specified target measurement. We present a formalism to investigate whether a given measurement pair of mode and target measurements can be connected by a squashing model. We show that the measurements used in the BB84 protocol do allow a squashing description, although the six-state protocol does not. As a result, security proofs for the BB84 protocol can be based on the assumption that the eavesdropper forwards at most one photon, while the same does not hold for the six-state protocol.
Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. Fixed a typographical error. Replaced the six-state protocol counter-example. Conclusions of the paper are unchanged
Quantum Physics