Stratification and Isotope Separation in CP Stars

Cowley, C. R.
Hubrig, S.
Gonzalez, F. G.
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We investigate the elemental and isotopic stratification in the atmospheres of selected chemically peculiar (CP) stars of the upper main sequence. Reconfiguration of the UVES spectrograph in 2004 has made it possible to examine all three lines of the Ca II infrared triplet. Much of the material analyzed was obtained in 2008. We support the claim of Ryabchikova, Kochukhov & Bagnulo (RKB) that the calcium isotopes have distinct stratification profiles for the stars 10 Aql, HR 1217, and HD 122970, with the heavy isotope concentrated toward the higher layers. Better observations are needed to learn the extent to which Ca-40 dominates in the deepest layers of all or most CP stars that show the presence of Ca-48. There is little evidence for Ca-40 in the spectra of some HgMn stars, and the infrared triplet in the magnetic star HD 101065 is well fit by pure Ca-48. In HR 5623 (HD 133792) and HD 217522 it is likely that the heavy isotope dominates, though models are possible where this is not the case. While elemental stratification is surely needed in many cases, we point out the importance of including adjustments in the assumed Teff and log(g) values, in attempts to model stratification. We recommend emphasis on profiles of the strongest lines, where the influence of stratification is most evident. Isotopic mixtures, involving the 4 stable calcium nuclides with masses between 40 and 48 are plausible, but are not emphasized.
Comment: 16 Pages, 20 Figures, 10 Tables. Accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the RAS
Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics