Dynamic effective mass of granular media and the attenuation of structure-borne sound

Valenza, John
Hsu, Chaur-Jian
Ingale, Rohit
Gland, Nicolas
Makse, Hernán A.
Johnson, David Linton
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
We report an experimental and theoretical investigation of the frequency-dependent effective mass, $\tilde{M}(\omega)$, of loose granular particles which occupy a rigid cavity to a given filling fraction, the remaining volume being air of differing humidities. This allow us to study the mechanisms of elastic response and attenuation of acoustic modes in granular media. We demonstrate that this is a sensitive and direct way to measure those properties of the granular medium that are the cause of the changes in acoustic properties of structures containing grain-filled cavities. Specifically, we apply this understanding to the case of the flexural resonances of a rectangular bar with a grain-filled cavity within it. The dominant features of $\tilde{M}(\omega)$ are a sharp resonance and a broad background, which we analyze within the context of simple models. We find that: a) These systems may be understood in terms of a height-dependent and diameter-dependent effective sound speed ($\sim 100-300$ m/s) and an effective viscosity ($\sim 5\times 10^4$ Poise). b) There is a dynamic Janssen effect in the sense that, at any frequency, and depending on the method of sample preparation, approximately one-half of the effective mass is borne by the side walls of the cavity and one-half by the bottom. c) By performing experiments under varying humidity conditions we conclude that, on a fundamental level, damping of acoustic modes is dominated by adsorbed films of water at grain-grain contacts in our experiments, not by global viscous dampening. d) There is a monotonically increasing effect of humidity on the dampening of the fundamental resonance within the granular medium which translates to a non-monotonic, but predictable, variation of dampening within the grain-loaded bar.
Condensed Matter - Soft Condensed Matter